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Video Game Violence

Page history last edited by Joanna Postlethwaite 10 years, 5 months ago






Video Game Violence: General


American Psychological Association (2005), 'Resolution on Violence in Video Games and Interactive Media'.

CA Anderson (2004), 'An Update on the effects of playing violent video games', Journal of Adolescence 27.


CA Anderson (2003), 'Violent Video Games: Myths, Facts, and Unanswered Questions'.


C.A. Anderson and D.A. Gentile (2012), 'Effects of Prosocial, Neutral, and Violent Video Games on College Students' Affect' Aggressive Behaviour 38:4. 


C.A. Anderson, L. Berkowitz, E. Donnerstein, L.R. Huesmann, J.D. Johnson, D. Linz et al. (2003), 'The Influence of Media Violence on Youth', Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4. 


C.A. Anderson, D.A. Gentile, K.E. Buckley (2007), Violent video game effects on children and adolescents: Theory, research, and public policy Oxford University Press, Oxford.

P. Arriaga, F. Esteves, P. Carneiro, M.B. Monteiro (2005), 'Are the effects of Unreal violent video games pronounced when playing with a virtual reality system?' Aggressive Behaviour 34:5.


Ballard, M. E., & Lineberger, R. (1999). 'Video game violence and confederate gender: Effects on reward and punishment given by college males'. Sex Roles 41, 541-558.


C. Barlett, O. Branch, C. Rodeheffer and R. Harris (2009), 'How long do the short-term violent video game effects last?' Aggressive Behaviour 35:3.


C Barlett, C Anderson, and E Swing (2009), ‘Video Game Effects – Confirmed, Suspected and Speculative: A Review of the Evidence,’ Simulation and Gaming 37

C Barlett and C Anderson (2009), ‘Violent Video Games and Public Policy,’ in Tobias Bevc & Holger Zapf (eds) Wie wer spielen, was wir warden: Computerspiele in unserer Gesellschaft 


J. Barnett at. Al. (2008), The WoW Factor! Reduced Levels of Anger After Violent On-Line Play.


R. Boyle and M. Hibberd (2005), 'Review of Research on the Impact of Violent Computer Games on Young People.' Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, San Francisco, CA.


Bowen HJ, Spaniol J (2011) 'Chronic exposure to violent video games is not associated with alterations of emotional memory.' Applied Cognitive Psychology 25.


Brady, S. S., & Matthews, K. A. (2006). 'Effects of media violence on health-related outcomes among young men'. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), 341–347.


KD Browne, C Hamilton-Giaschritsis (2005), 'The influence of violent media on children and adolescents: a public-health approach'. The Lancet.


B.J. Bushman, H.R. Rothstein, C.A. Anderson  (2010), 'Much Ado About Something: Violent Video Game Effects and a School of Red Herring: Reply to Ferguson and Kilburn'. Psychological Bulletin.

reply to Ferguson, Kilburn. (2010)


E.P. Charles et al. (2013), 'Motion capture controls negate the violent video-game effect' Computers in Human Behaviour.


G. Cumberbatch (2004), 'Video Violence: Villain or Victim? A Review of the Research Evidence Concerning Media Violence and its Effects in the Real World with Additional Reference to Video Games'. Report for the Video Standards Comittee.

J.L. Deselms, J.D. Altman (2003), 'Immediate and Prolonged Effects of Videogame Violence' Journal of Applied Social Psychology.


Devilly, G. J., Unsworth, G., & Ward, T. (2007). The effect of playing violent video games on adolescents: Should parents be quaking in their boots? Psychology, Crime & Law, 13(4)


David R. Ewoldsen, Cassie A. Eno, Bradley M. Okdie, John A. Velez, Rosanna E. Guadagno, and Jamie DeCoster. Effect of Playing Violent Video Games Cooperatively or Competitively on Subsequent Cooperative Behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. May 2012, 15(5): 277-280.


C Ferguson, J Kilburn (2010), 'Much ado about nothing: the misestimation and overinterpretation of violent video game effects in eastern and western nations: comment on Anderson et al.' Psychological Bulletin.

reply to Anderson et al. (2010)

Ferguson, C. J., & Kilburn, J. (2009). 'The public health risks of media violence: A meta-analytic review'. The Journal of Pediatrics, 154 (5)


C.J. Ferguson (2011), 'Video Games and Youth Violence: A Prospective Analysis in Adolescents', Journal of Youth and Adolescence.


CJ Ferguson (2007), 'The good, the bad and the ugly: a meta-analytic review of positive and negative effects of violent video games'. Psychiatry Quarterly.


Ferguson, C. J. (2013). 'Violent video games and the Supreme Court: Lessons for the scientific community in the wake of Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association'. American Psychologist, 68(2), 57-74.


Ferguson, C. J. (2009). 'Media violence effects: Confirmed truth or just another X-File?' Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 9(2), 103-126.


Ferguson, C. J. (2008). 'The school shooting/violent video game link: Causal relationship or moral panic?' Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling, 5, 25-37.


Ferguson, C. J. (2007). 'Evidence for publication bias in video game violence effects literature: A meta-analytic review.' Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12, 470-482.


C.J. Ferguson (2010), ‘Blazing angels or resident evil? Can violent video games be a force for good?’ Review of General Psychology, 14 (2) (2010), pp. 68–81.


Ferguson CJ (2013) 'Violent video games and the supreme court.' American Psychologist 68: 57–74


Ferguson CJ, Rueda SM (2010) 'The hitman study.' European Psychologist 15.


Ferguson, C. J. (2007). 'Video games: The latest scapegoat for violence.' Chronicle of Higher Education, 53(42), 20.


C Ferguson (2008), ‘Violent Video Games: How Hysteria and Pseudoscience Created a Phantom Public Health Crisis’ Paradigm 12.

C Ferguson and C Olson (2010), “The Supreme Court and Video Game Violence: Will Regulation Be Worth the Costs to the First Amendment?” The Criminologist 18


J.L. Freedman (2001), 'Evaluating the Research on Violent Video Games'. Cited by PEGI here: http://www.pegi.info/en/index/id/26#question_9.


Funk, J. B., Buchman, D. D., Myers, M., & Jenks, J. (2000). 'Asking the right questions in research on violent electronic games'. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Psychological Association, August 7, 2000.


Funk, J. B., and Buchman, D. D. (1996). 'Playing violent video and computer games and adolescent self-concept'. Journal of Communication 46(2)


J.B. Funk et al. (1999), 'Rating Electronic Games: Violence is in the Eye of the Beholder' Youth & Society.


Gentile, D., & Gentile, J. (2008). Violent video games as exemplary teachers: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(2)


DA Gentile, W Stone (2005), 'Violent video game effects on children and adolescents. A review of the literature.'


Gentile, D. A., Saleem, M., & Anderson, C. A. (2007). Public policy and the effects of media violence on children. Social Issues and Policy Review, 1


Gentile, D.A., Walsh, D.A., Ellison, P.R., Fox, M., & Cameron, J. (2004). 'Media violence as a risk factor for children: A longitudinal study.' Paper presented at the American Psychological Society 16th Annual Convention, Chicago, IL.


Griggers, C. B. (2009). 'The writing on the screen: A meditation on the Virginia Tech shooting spree: Age-appropriate use of violent first-person computer games' Semiotica, 177


H Jenkins (2004), ‘The War Between Effects and Meaning: Rethinking the Video Game Violence Debate,” in D Buckingham & R Willett (eds) Digital generations: Children, young people and new media, 19.


S.J. Kirsh and J.R.W. Mounts (2007), 'Violent video game play impacts facial emotion recognition', Aggressive Behaviour 33:4.


Kirsh, S. J., Olczak, P. V., & Mounts, J. R.W. (2005). 'Violent video games induce an affect processing bias'. Media Psychology, 7, 239–250.


C.A. Kocurek (2012), ‘The Agony and the Exidy: A History of Video Game Violence and the Legacy of Death Race’ Game Studies 12:1.


K Kontour (2009), ‘Revisiting Violent Videogames Research: Game Studies Perspectives on Aggression, Violence, Immersion, Interaction and Textual Analysis,’  Digital Culture and Education 6.


L. Kutner, C. Olson (2008), Grand theft childhood: The surprising truth about violent video games and what parents can do. Simon & Schuster, New York (2008)


Media Violence Commission (2012), 'Report of the Media Violence Commission', Aggressive Violence 38:5. 


Olson, C. K., Kutner, L. A., Warner, D. E., Almerigi, J. B., Baer, L., Nicholi, A. M.,II, et al. (2007). Factors correlated with violent video game use by adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(1)


Przybylski, Andrew K. and Ryan, Richard M. and Rigby, C. Scott. (2009). The motivating role of violence in video games. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35

Marcus Schulzke (2013), ‘Rethinking Military Gaming: America's Army and Its Critics’ Games and Culture 8 (2)


E Swing and C Anderson (2007), ‘Unintended Negative Consequences of Exposure to Violent Video Games’ (2007) Cognitive Technology 1.   


G Unsworth, G Devilly and T Ward (2007), ‘The Effect of Playing Violent Video Games on Adolescents: Should Parents Be Quaking In Their Boots?’ Psychology, Crime and Law 383.



and Aggression

Adachi, P. J. C., & Willoughby, T. (2011). The effect of video game competition and violence on aggressive behavior: Which characteristic has the greatest influence? Psychology of Violence , 1 (4)


CA Anderson, A Shibuya, EL Swing, BJ Bushman (2010), 'Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a meta-analytic review.' Psychological Bulletin 10.
reply to Ferguson (2007)

Anderson, C.A., & Murphy, C.R. (2003). 'Violent video games and aggressive behavior in young women'. Aggressive Behavior.


Anderson, C. A., Carnagey, N. L., Flanagan, M., Benjamin, A. J., Eubanks, J., & Valentine, J. C. 'Violent video games: Specific effects of violent content on aggressive thoughts and behavior'. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology.


C.A. Anderson, N.L. Carnagey (2009), 'Causal effects of violent sports video games on aggression: Is it competitiveness or violent content?' Journal of Experimental Psychology.


C.A. Anderson, BJ Bushman (2001), 'Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature'.


Anderson, C. A., & Dill, K. E. (2000). 'Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life'. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 78, 772-790.


Anderson, C. A., & Ford, C.M. (1986). 'Affect of the game player: Short term effects of highly and mildly aggressive video games'. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 12, 390-402.


Anderson, C. A., Sakamoto, A., Gentile, D. A., Ihori, N., Shibuya, A., Yukawa, S., et al. (2008). Longitudinal effects of violent video games on aggression in japan and the united states. Pediatrics, 122(5)


Christopher P. Barlett and Christoper Rodeheffer (2009), 'Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal'. Aggressive Behaviour 35:3.


Barlett, C. P., Rodeheffer, C. D., Baldassaro, R., Hinkin, M. P., & Harris, R. J. (2008) The effect of advances in video game technology and content on aggressive cognitions, hostility, and heart rate. Media Psychology, 11.


C Barlett, R Harris and C Bruey (2008), ‘The effect of the amount of blood in a violent video game on aggression, hostility and arousal,’ Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 539.

Christopher P. Barlett, R.J. Harris and R. Baldassaro (2007), 'Longer you play, the more hostile you feel: examination of first person shooter video games and aggression during video game play', Aggressive Behaviour 33:6.


M.N. Bijvank, E.A. Konijn, B.J. Bushman (2012), '“We don’t need no education”: Video game preferences, video game motivations, and aggressiveness among adolescent boys of different educational ability levels' Journal of Adolescence 35:1.


Matthias Bluemke, Monika Friedrich and Joerg Zumbach (2010), 'The influence of violent and nonviolent computer games on implicit measures of aggressiveness', Aggressive Behaviour Vol. 31:1.


Boyle, R., and Hibberd, M. (2005), 'Review of Research of the impact of violent computer games on young people.' Sterling Media Research Institute.

BJ Bushman (2012), 'Do Violent Video Games Incerase Aggression?', Psychology Today.

Bushman, B. J. & Anderson, C. A. (2002). 'Violent video games and hostile expectations: A test of the General Aggression Model'. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28, 1679-1686.

Bushman, B. J., & Gibson, B. (2010) Violent video games cause an increase in aggression long after the game has been turned off. Social Psychological and Personality Science.


SL Calvert (1994), 'Impact of virtual reality on young adults’ physiological arousal and aggressive thoughts: interaction versus observation', Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 15.


NL Carnagey, C.A. Anderson (2004), ‘Violent video game exposure and aggression: a literature review’ Minerva Psichiatrica, 45 (2004), pp. 1–18.


Carnagey, N. L., & Anderson, C. A. (2005). 'The effects of reward and punishment in violent video games on aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior.' American Psychological Science, 16


Cooper, J., & Mackie, D. (1986). 'Video games and aggression in children'. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 16, 726-744.


Denzler, M., Hafner, M., & Forster, J. (2012). He just wants to play: How goals determine the influence of violent computer games on aggression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin , 37


Dominick, J. R. (1984). 'Videogames, television violence, and aggression in teenagers'. Journal of Communication 34, 136-14


Eastin, M. S. (2006). Video game violence and the female game player: Self-and opponent gender effects on presence and aggressive thoughts. Human Communication Research, 32(3)


Bartholow, B. D., & Anderson, C. A. (2002). 'Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior: Potential sex differences'. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 38, 283-290.


Eyal, K., Metzger, M. J., Lingsweiler, R. W., Mahood, C., & Yao, M. Z. (2006). Aggressive political opinions and exposure to violent media. Mass Communication and Society, 9(4)


Farrar, K. M., Krcmar, M. & Nowak, K. L. (2006). Contextual of violent video games, mental models, and aggression. Journal of Communication, 56, 387-405.


C Ferguson (2010), ‘The Wild West of Assessment: Measuring Aggression and Violence in Video Games,’ in L Annetta and S Bronack (eds), Serious Educational Game Assessment: Practical Methods and Models forEducational Games, Simulations and Virtual Worlds, 31.


CJ Ferguson, J Kilburn (2009), 'A multivariate analysis of youth violence and aggression: the influence of family, peers, depression, and media violence'. Journal of Pediatrics 155.


P. Fischer, A. Kastenmuller, T. Greitemeyer (2010), 'Media violence and the self: The impact of personalized gaming characters in aggressive video games on aggressive behavior' Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.


Freedman, J. (2002). Media violence and its effect on aggression: Assessing the scientific evidence. Toronto: University of Toronto Press


J.B. Funk, J. Hagan, J. Schimming, W.A. Bullock, D.D. Buchman, M. Myers (2002), 'Aggression and psychopathology in adolescents with a preference for violent electronic games' Aggressive Behaviour 28:2. 


D.A. Gentile, S. Coyne, D.A. Walsh (2010), 'Media violence, physical aggression, and relational aggression in school age children: a short-term longitudinal study' Aggressive Behaviour.

S.A. Gitter, P.J. Ewell, R.E. Guadagno, T.F. Stillman, R.F. Baumeister (2013), 'Virtually justifiable homicide: The effects of prosocial contexts on the link between violent video games, aggression, and prosocial and hostile cognition'. Aggressive Behaviour 39:5.

Giumetti, G. W. & Markey, P. M. (2007) Violent video games and anger as predictors of aggression. Journal of Research in Personality, 41


Glock, S., & Kneer, J. (2009) Game over? The impact of knowledge about violent digital games on the activation of aggression-related concepts. Journal of Media Psychology, 21

Graybill, D., Strawniak, M., Hunter, T., & O’Leary, M. (1987). 'Effects of playing versus observing violent versus nonviolent video games on children’s aggression'. Psychology: A Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior 24, 1-8.


Greitemeyer, T. and McLatchie, N. (2011). Denying humanness to others: A newly discovered mechanism by which violent video games increase aggressive behavior. Psychological Science, 22(5)

W.D. Gunter and K. Daly (2012), 'Causal or spurious: Using propensity score matching to detangle the relationship between violent video games and violent behavior' Computers in Human Behaviour.


Y. Hasan, L. Begue, B.J. Bushman (2013), 'Violent Video Games Stress People Out and Make Them More Aggressive'. Aggressive Behaviour 39:1. 


Y. Hasan et al. (2013), 'The more you play, the more aggressive you become: A long-term experimental study of cumulative violent video game effects on hostile expectations and aggressive behavior'  Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.


Y. Hasan, L. Begue, B.J. Bushman (2012), 'Viewing the world through “blood-red tinted glasses”: The hostile expectation bias mediates the link between violent video game exposure and aggression' Journal of Experimental Psychology. 


J. Hollingdale, T. Greitemeyer (2013), 'The changing face of aggression: the effect of personalized avatars in a violent video game on levels of aggressive behavior' Journal of Applied Social Psychology.


Huesmann LR (2010), 'Nailing the coffin shut on doubts that violent video games stimulate aggression: Comment on Anderson et al.' (2010). Psychological Bulletin 136: 179–181.


Irwin, A. R., & Gross, A. M. (1995). 'Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys'. Journal of Family Violence 10, 337-350.


Ivory, J., & Kalyanaraman, S. (2009). Video games make people violent - well, maybe not that game: Effects of content and person abstraction on perceptions of violent video games’ effects and support of censorship. Communication Reports, 22(1), 1–12.


J.M. Jerabeck and C.J. Ferguson (2013), 'The influence of solitary and cooperative violent video game play on aggressive and prosocial behavior' Computers in Human Behaviour.


Ki Joon Kim and S. Shyam Sundar. 'Can Interface Features Affect Aggression Resulting from Violent Video Game Play? An Examination of Realistic Controller and Large Screen Size' Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. May 2013, 16(5): 329-334.


Konijn, E. A., Nije Bijvank, M., & Bushman, B. J. (2007). I wish I were a warrior: The role of wishful identification in effects of violent video games on aggression in adolescent boys. Developmental Psychology


Krahe & Moller (2004). 'Playing violent electronic games, hostile attributional style, and aggression-related norms in German adolescents', Journal of Adolescence 27, 53–69.


Krahe & Moller (2011), 'Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents' Aggressive Behaviour 34:2.


Krahe & Moller (2010), 'Longitudinal effects of media violence on aggression and empathy among German adolescents' Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology

Krcmar, M., & Farrar, K. (2009). Retaliatory aggression and the effects of point of view and blood in violent video games. Mass Communication and Society, 12

Krcmar, M., & Lachlan, K. (2009). Aggressive Outcomes and Videogame Play: The Role of Length of Play and the Mechanisms at Work. Media Psychology , 12 (3)


W.G. Kronenberger, V.P. Matthews, D.W. Dunn, Y. Wang, E.A. Wood, J.J. Larsen, M.E. Rembusch, M.J. Lowe, A.L. Giaque and J.T. Lurito (2005), 'Media violence exposure in aggressive and control adolescents: differences in self- and parent-reported exposure to violence on television and in video games'. Aggressive Behaviour 31:3. 


J.H. Lin (2013), 'Do video games exert stronger effects on aggression than film? The role of media interactivity and identification on the association of violent content and aggressive outcomes' Computers in Human Behaviour.


Lemmens, J. S., & Bushman, B. J. (2006). The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries. CyberPsychology & Behavior,


Melzer, A., Derks, I., Heydekorn, J. & Steffgen, G. (2010). Realistic versus standard game controls in violent video games and their effects on aggression. In H.S. Yang et al. (Eds.). International Federation for Information Processing.

I. Moller and B. Krahe (2009), Exposure to violent video games and aggression in German adolescents: a longitudinal analysis. Aggressive Behaviour 35:1.


K.L. Nowak, M. Krcmar, K.M. Farrar (2008), 'The Causes and Consequences of Presence: Considering the Influence of Violent Video Games on Presence and Aggression' Presence


C Olson et al (2009), ‘M-Rated Video Games and Aggressive or Problem Behavior Among Young Adolescents,’ Applied Developmental Science 188.


S. Persky, J. Blascovich (2008), 'Immersive Virtual Video Game Play and Presence: Influences on Aggressive Feelings and Behavior' Presence.


H. Polman, B. Orobio de Castro and M.A.G. van Aken (2007), 'Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior', Aggressive Behaviour 34:3. 


Schmierbach, M. (2010). “killing spree”: Exploring the connection between competitive game play and aggressive cognition. Communication Research, 37 (2)


M.A. Sestir, B.D. Bartholow (2010), 'Violent and nonviolent video games produce opposing effects on aggressive and prosocial outcomes'. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.


Sherry JL (2001) 'The effect of violent video games on aggression: A meta-analysis'. Human Communications Research 27: 409–431.


J Sherry (2009), ‘Violent Video Games and Aggression: Why Can’t We Find Effects?’ in R Preiss (ed), Mass media effects research: advances through meta-analysis, 245.


M.D. Slater, K.L. Henry, R.C. Swaim, L.L. Anderson (2003), ‘Violent media content and aggressiveness in adolescents; a downward spiral model’ Communication Research, 30 (6) (2003), pp. 713–736.


Scott Kie Zin Teng, Gabriel Yew Mun Chong, Amy Sok Cheng Siew, and Marko M. Skoric. 'Grand Theft Auto IV Comes to Singapore: Effects of Repeated Exposure to Violent Video Games on Aggression' Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. October 2011, 14(10): 597-602.


Uhlmann, E., & Swanson, J. (2004). 'Exposure to violent video games increases automatic aggressiveness'. Journal of Adolescence 27, 41–52.


Willoughby, T., Adachi, P. J. C., & Good, M. (2011). A longitudinal study of the association between violent video game play and aggression among adolescents. Developmental Psychology.


D.J.R. Wood, M.J. Fleming (2001), 'Effects of Violent Versus Nonviolent Video Games on Children's Arousal, Aggressive Mood, and Positive Mood' Journal of Applied Social Psychology  



and Cognition

Barlett, C. P., Vowels, C. L., Shanteau, J., Crow, J. & Miller, T. (2009). The effect of violent and non-violent computer games on cognitive performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 96-102


Bösche, W. (2009). Violent content enhances video game performance. Journal of Media Psychology, 21 (4)

Bösche, W. (2010). Violent video games prime both aggressive and positive cognitions. Journal of Media Psychology: Theories, Methods, and Applications , 22 (4)


Ferguson, C. J., Garza, A., Jerabeck, J., Ramos, R., & Galindo, M. (2013). 'Not worth the fuss after all? Cross-sectional and prospective data on violent video game influences on aggression, visuospatial cognition and mathematics ability in a sample of youth'. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(1), 109-122.


Gentile, D., & Gentile, J. (2008). Violent video games as exemplary teachers: A conceptual analysis. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37(2)



and Desensitisation


P. Arriaga, F. Esteves, P. Carneiro, M.B. Monteiro (2011), 'Effects of Playing Violent Computer Games on Emotional Desensitization and Aggressive Behavior' Journal of Applied Social Psychology.


B.D. Bartholow, B.J. Bushman, M.A. Sestir (2006), 'Chronic violent video game exposure and desensitization to violence: Behavioral and event-related brain potential data' Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.


B. Bastian (2012), 'Cyber-dehumanization: Violent video game play diminishes our humanity' Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

Bushman, B. J., & Anderson, C. A. (2009). Comfortably numb: Desensitizing effects of violent media on helping others. Psychological Science, 20 (3)


N.L. Carnagey, C.A. Anderson, B.J. Bushman (2007), 'The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence' Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

- same authors (2007), 'Erratum to “The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence”'


Funk, J.B., Baldacci, H.B., Pasold, T., & Baumgardner, J. (2004). 'Violence exposure in real-life, video games, television, movies, and the internet: Is there desensitization?', Journal of Adolescence 27, 23-39.


J.B. Funk, D.D. Buchman, J. Henks, H. Bechtoldt (2003), 'Playing violent video games, desensitization, and moral evaluation in children' Journal of Applied Development Psychology 24:4.  


 Lee, K. M., Peng, W., & Klein, J. (2010) Will the experience of playing a violent role in a video game influence people’s judgements of violent crimes? Computers in Human Behavior, 26


Staude-Müller, F., Bliesener, T., & Luthman, S. (2008). Hostile and hardened? an experimental study on (de-)sensitization to violence and suffering through playing video games. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 67(1)



and Hostility


Ballard, M. E., & Weist, J. R. (1996). 'Mortal Kombat: The effects of violent video game play on males’ hostility and cardiovascular responding'. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 26, 717-730.


Eastin, M. S., & Griffiths, R. P. (2006). Beyond the shooter game: Examining presence and hostile outcomes among male game players. Communication Research, 33(6)


Gentile, D.A., Lynch, P.L., Linder, J.R., & Walsh, D.A. (2004). 'The effects of violent video game habits on adolescent hostility, aggressive behaviors, and school performance'. Journal of Adolescence 27, 5-22.


Kirsh, S. J. (1998). 'Seeing the world through Mortal Kombat-colored glasses: Violent video games and the development of a short-term hostile attribution bias'. Childhood 5, 177-184.


Lynch PJ (1999) 'Hostility, type A behavior, and stress hormones at rest and after playing violent video-games in teenagers.' Psychosom Med 61: 113. 


Panee, C. D., & Ballard, M. E. (2002). 'High versus low aggressive priming during video game training: Effects on violent action during game play, hostility, heart rate, and blood pressure'. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 32, 2458-2474.


Tamborini, R., Eastin, M. S., Skalski, P., Lachlan, K., Fediuk, T. A., & Brady, R. (2004). Violent virtual video games and hostile thoughts. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 48(3)


J.J. Valadez and C.J. Ferguson (2012), 'Just a game after all: Violent video game exposure and time spent playing effects on hostile feelings, depression, and visuospatial cognition' Computers in Human Behaviour.



and Morality


A. Gabbiadini, L. Andrighetto, C. Volpato (2012), 'Brief report: Does exposure to violent video games increase moral disengagement among adolescents?' Journal of Adolescence 35:5.


M. Gollweiter, A. Melzer (2012), 'Macbeth and the Joystick: Evidence for moral cleansing after playing a violent video game' Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.

Hartmann, T. & Vorderer, P. (2010). It’s okay to shoot a character: Moral disengagement in violent video games. Journal of Communication, 60


Klimmt et al. (2006), ‘How players manage moral concerns to make video game violence enjoyable.’ Communications 31.


Klimmt et al. (2008), ‘“Moral management”: Dealing with moral concerns to maintain enjoyment of violent video games’ in A. Sudmann-Jahn, R. Stockmann (Eds.), Computer games as a sociocultural phenomenon: Games without frontiers — Wars without tears, Palgrave, Hampshire, UK (2008), pp. 108–118 



and Physiological Arousal


P. Arriaga, F. Esteves, P. Carneiro, M.B. Monteiro (2006), 'Violent computer games and their effects on state hostility and Physiological arousal' Aggressive Behaviour 32:4.


B. Baldaro, G. Tuozzi, M. Codispoti et al. (2004), ‘Aggressive and non-violent video games: short-term physiological and cardiovascular effects on habitual players’. Stress and Health 20.


Ballard, M. E. (2002), 'High Versus Low Aggressive Priming During Video-Game Training: Effects on Violent Action During Game Play, Hostility, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure' Journal of Applied Social Psychology


Ivory, J. D., & Kalyanaraman, S. (2007). The effects of technological advancement and violent content in video games on players’ feelings of presence, involvement, physiological arousal, and aggression. Journal of Communication, 57(3)



Sexualised Violence


Beck, V. S., Boys, S., Rose, C., & Beck, E. (2012). Violence against women in video games: A prequel or sequel to rape myth acceptance? Journal of Interpersonal Violence.


Tracy L. Dietz (1998), An Examination of Violence and Gender Role Portrayals in Video Games: Implications for Gender Socialization and Aggressive Behavior. Sex Roles.


Dill, K. (2009). Violent video games, rape myth acceptance, and negative attitudes toward women. In E. Stark & E. Buzawa (Eds.), Violence against women in familiesand relationships (pp. 126-140). Westport, CT: Praeger.


Dill, K. E., Brown, B. P., & Collins, M. A. (2008) Effects of media stereotypes on sexual harassment judgments and rape supportive attitudes: Popular video game characters, gender, violence and power. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1402-1408.



Risk Factors


R.M. Chory, A.K. Goodboy (2011), ‘Is basic personality related to violent and non-violent video game play and preferences?’, Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14 (4) (2011), pp. 191–198.


C.R. Engelhardt, B.D. Bartholow, J.S. Saults (2011), 'Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger' Aggressive Behaviour 37:6.


C.R. Engleheart, B.D. Bartholow, G.T. Kerr, B.J. Bushman (2011), 'This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure' Journal of Experimental Psychology.

Ferguson, C. J., Rueda, S., Cruz, A., Ferguson, D., Fritz, S., & Smith, S. (2008). 'Violent video games and aggression: Causal relationship or byproduct of family violence and intrinsic violence motivation?' Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35, 311-332.


  C.J. Ferguson & C.K. Olson (2013), '“Vulnerable” Populations: The Impact of Violent Games on Delinquency and Bullying Among Children with Clinically Elevated Depression or Attention Deficit Symptoms' Journal of Youth and Adolescence.

- Comment in Times UK August 2013


Funk, J. B. (2003). Violent video games: Who’s at risk? In D. Ravitch & J. Viteritti (Eds.), Kid stuff: Marketing violence and vulgarity in the popular culture (pp. 168– 192). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.


Kestenbaum, G. I., & Weinstein, L. (1985) 'Personality, psychopathology and developmental issues in male adolescent video game use'. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 24, 329-333.

P Markey and C Markey (2010), ‘Vulnerability to Violent Video Games: A Review and Integration of Personality Research,’ Review of General Psychology 82.


Markey, P. M., & Scherer, K. (2009). An examination of psychoticism and motion capture controls as moderators of the effects of violent video games. Computers in Human Behavior, 25

Peng, W., Liu, M., & Mou, Y. (2008). Do aggressive People play violent computer games in a more aggressive way? Individual difference and idiosyncratic game-playing experience. Cyberpsychology and Behavior, 11(2)

Peng, W. & Liu, M. (2009). Cognitive and psychological predictors of the negative outcomes associated with playing MMOGs (massively multiplayer online games). Computers in Human Behavior, 25(6), 1306–1311.


Marjut Wallenius, Raija-Leena Punamäki (2009), 'Digital game violence and direct aggression in adolescence: A longitudinal study of the roles of sex, age, and parent–child communication' Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology.


Wingrove, J., & Bond, A. J. (1998). 'Angry reactions to failure on a cooperative computer game: The effect of trait hostility, behavioural inhibition, and behavioural activation'. Aggressive Behavior 24, 27-36.


Winkel, M., Novak, D. M., & Hopson, M. (1987). 'Personality factors, subject gender and the effects of aggressive video games on aggression in adolescents', Journal of Research in Personality 21, 211-223.



Content Ratings


Bijvank, M. N., Konijn, E. A., Bushman, B. J., & Roelofsma, P. H. M. P. (2009) Age and violent-content labels make video games forbidden fruits for youth. Pediatrics, 123, 3.


Haninger, K., & Thompson, K. M. (2004). Content and ratings of teen-rated video games. Journal of the American Medical Association, 291(7), 856–865.


Ivory, J. D., Williams, D. C., Martins, N., & Consalvo, M. (2009). 'Good clean fun? A content analysis of profanity in video games and its prevalence across game systems and ratings'. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12 (4)


Thompson, K. M., Tepichin, K., & Haninger, K. (2006). Content and ratings of mature-rated video games. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 160(4), 402–410. 


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